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Taxon  Report  
Solanum elaeagnifolium  Cav.
Horse nettle,   Silver leaved horsenettle,   Silverleaf nightshade,   Silverleafnettle
Solanum elaeagnifolium is a perennial herb that is not native to California.
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Bloom Period
Genus: Solanum
Family: Solanaceae  
Category: angiosperm  
PLANTS group:Dicot
Jepson eFlora section: eudicot

Toxicity: Do not eat any part of this plant.

Habitat: disturbed

Communities: weed, characteristic of disturbed places

Name Status:
Accepted by JEF + PLANTS

Information about  Solanum elaeagnifolium from other sources

[Wikipedia] Range, Description, Weed status: Solanum elaeagnifolium, the silverleaf nightshade[1] or silver-leaved nightshade, is a common native plant to parts of the southwestern USA, and sometimes weed of western North America and also found in South America. Other common names include prairie berry, silverleaf nettle, white horsenettle or silver nightshade. In South Africa it is known as silver-leaf bitter-apple or satansbos ("Satan's bush" in Afrikaans). More ambiguous names include "bull-nettle", "horsenettle" and the Spanish "trompillo".[2] Solanum elaeagnifolium was described by A. J. Cavanilles. The plant described under the same name by W. Herbert and C. L. Willdenow based on E.G. von Steudel is Solanum aethiopicum. Description It is a perennial 10 cm[3] to 1 m in height. The stems are covered with nettle-like spines less than 0.5cm long,[4] ranging from very few on some plants to very dense on others. Leaves and stems are covered with downy hairs (trichomes) that lie against and hide the surface, giving a silvery or grayish appearance.[5] Closeup of S. elaeagnifolium flower Closeup of S. elaeagnifolium berries The leaves are up to 15 cm long and 0.5 to 2.5 cm wide, with shallowly waved edges, which distinguish it from the closely related Carolina Horsenettle (S. carolinense), which has wider, more deeply indented leaves. The flowers, appearing from April to August, have five petals united to form a star, ranging from blue to pale lavender or occasionally white; five yellow stamens and a pistil form a projecting center. The plant produces glossy yellow, orange, or red berries that last all winter and may turn brown as they dry.[5] Toxicity It is toxic to both humans and livestock.[13] Ingestion of silverleaf nightshade has been implicated as a cause of ivermectin toxicosis in horses given the recommended dosage of the drug. Metabolites from the plant are speculated to disrupt the blood?brain barrier, allowing ivermectin to enter and disrupt neurotransmitter function in the brain and spinal cord.[14] Its thin spines can cause weed dermatitis.[15] The Pima Indians used the berries as a vegetable rennet, and the Kiowa used the seeds together with brain tissue to tan leather.[9] (contributed by Mary Ann Machi)


Suggested Citation
Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation, with data contributed by public and private institutions and individuals. [web application]. 2024. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database [a non-profit organization]. Available: https://www.calflora.org/   (Accessed: 05/18/2024).