[Wikipedia] Iberian Peninsula native: It is native to the Iberian Peninsula, especially frequent in the western half in central and northern interior Portugal and central and northern western Spain. It is better known as an introduced species on other continents, including Australia and North America, where it has become a weed in agricultural land and an invasive species in natural habitats. (contributed by Mary Ann Machi)
[Wikipedia] Noxious weed: This plant is a serious noxious weed of agricultural fields and a colonizing invasive plant in wild lands in parts of Australia and California, where it was first introduced as an ornamental shrub for its prolific white flowers. It is still sometimes grown and sold for landscaping purposes despite its status as a pest plant, with new industry and public education programs resulting (contributed by Mary Ann Machi)
Information on California plants for education, research and conservation,
with data contributed by
public and private institutions and individuals.
[web application]. 2023. Berkeley, California:The Calflora Database
[a non-profit organization].Available: