[Cal-IPC] Invasive: Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) is a low-statured, creeping, warm season perennial grass (family Poaceae) that is commonly planted in garden lawns and as turf. It is native to East Africa but has become a cosmopolitan weed in warmer regions around the world, where it tolerates a broad range of soil types and moister levels. Bermuda grass is distinguished by having slightly flattened stems, hairs that jut out at the leaf blade and sheath junctures, grey-green foliage, and an inflorescence comprised of a cluster of 2-6 spikes arranged radially from a single point. Plants reproduce both via rhizomes and seeds. Bermuda grass is fast growing and can out-compete native species, particularly in riparian areas.
Cal-IPC Rating: Moderate (contributed by Mary Ann Machi)
[Wikipedia] Europe, Africa, Australia, Asia native, Description: Cynodon dactylon, commonly known as Bermuda grass, is a grass found worldwide. It is native to Europe, Africa, Australia and much of Asia. It has been introduced to the Americas. Contrary to its common name, it is not native to Bermuda and is in fact an abundant invasive species there. In Bermuda it has been known as "crab grass" (also a name for Digitaria sanguinalis). Other names are Dhoob, d?rv? grass, ethana grass, dubo, dog grass, dog's tooth grass, Bahama grass, crab grass, devil's grass, couch grass, Indian doab, arugampul, grama, wiregrass and scutch grass.
Growing in Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park on the Island of Hawai'i
The blades are a grey-green colour and are short, usually 2?15 cm (0.79?5.91 in) long with rough edges. The erect stems can grow 1?30 cm (0.39?11.81 in) tall. The stems are slightly flattened, often tinged purple in colour.
The seed heads are produced in a cluster of two to six spikes together at the top of the stem, each spike 2?5 cm (0.79?1.97 in) long.
It has a deep root system; in drought situations with penetrable soil, the root system can grow to over 2 metres (6.6 ft) deep, though most of the root mass is less than 60 centimetres (24 in) under the surface. The grass creeps along the ground with its stolons, and roots wherever a node touches the ground, forming a dense mat. C. dactylon reproduces through seeds, stolons, and rhizomes. Growth begins at temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F) with optimum growth between 24 and 37 °C (75 and 99 °F); in winter, the grass becomes dormant and turns brown. Growth is promoted by full sun and retarded by full shade, e.g., close to tree trunks. (contributed by Mary Ann Machi)